Kangkang Tong

Assistant professor



LCC Full Time Environmental Engineering
Educational Background

Ph.D., Public Affairs, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 2013-2018

M.S., Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,                  2008-2011

B.S., Environmental Science, Wuhan University of Technology,  2004-2008


Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China-UK Low Carbon College                   2021-        Assistant Professor

Princeton University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering  2019-2021 Post-doctoral Research Associate & Associate Research Scholar

University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Humphrey School of Public Affairs     2018-2019 Post-doctoral Research Associate

Research Fields

  • Multi-level urban carbon accounting
  • Urban carbon mitigation strategies analysis
  • Analyzing cities actions supporting the carbon neutral transition
  • Social-environmental impact assessment of urban energy systems
  • Urban energy infrastructure transition pathways
Research Projects
  1. Shanghai Jiao Tong University-University of Edinburgh Seed Fund. Urban Energy Policy and Management for the Net-zero Carbon Transition. 2023.07-2024.06. Principal Investigator
  2. Shanghai Municipal People's Government's Key Consulting Research Project. Shanghai Low Carbon Institution Design and its International Connection Research. 2023.05-2023.09. Principal Investigator
  3. Soft Science Project of Shanghai Science and Technology Innovation Action Plan. Global Cities' Carbon Analytic Tools in their Carbon-neutral Plans. 2023.03-2024.02. Principal Investigator
  4. NSF. PIRE: Developing Low-Carbon Cities in the US, China, and India Through Integration Across Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Social Sciences, and Public Health. $4.45 million. 2012-2018. Main researcher
  5. NSF. SRN: Integrated Urban Infrastructure Solutions for Environmentally Sustainable, Healthy and Livable Cities. $12 million. 2015-2022. Main researcher
  6. NSF. S&CC: Connecting the Smart-City Paradigm with a Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Systems Framework to Advance Equity in Communities. $2.5 million. 2017-2021. Researcher

Journal Articles

  1. Joe F. Bozeman III*, Shauhrat S. CHOPRA, Philip James, SAJJAD Muhammad, Hua Cai, Kangkang Tong, Maya Carrasquillo, Harold Rickenbacker, Destenie Nock, Weslynne Ashton, Oliver Heidrich, Sybil Derrible, and Melissa Bilec. Three research priorities for just and sustainable urban systems: now is the time to refocus. Journal of Industrial Ecology. 2023. 27(2):377-639 https://doi.org/10.1111/jiec.13360
  2. Nagpure, A. S.; Tong, K.; Ramaswami, A*. Socially-differentiated urban metabolism methodology informs equity in coupled carbon-air pollution mitigation strategies: Insights from three Indian cities. Environmental Research Letters. 2022. (In print). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ac881e
  3. Zhang, C.; Zhai, H.*; Cao, L.; Li, X.; Cheng, F.; Peng, L.; Tong, K.; Meng, J.*; Yang, Y.; Wang, X.*. Understanding the complexity of existing fossil fuel power plant decarbonization. iScience. 2022. 25, 8, 104758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.104758

  4. Tong, K.* Net-zero-carbon urban transitions need systems thinking. (Voices: "Opportunities and barriers to net-zero cities"). One Earth. 2022. 5(7), 739-744. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oneear.2022.06.013

  5. Lal, M. R.*, Tibrewal, K., Venkataraman, C., Tong, K., Fang A., Ma, Q., Wang, S., Kaiser, J., Ramaswami, A., Russell, A. G.. Impact of Circular, Waste-Heat Reuse Pathways on PM2.5-Air Quality, CO2 Emissions, and Human Health in India: Comparison with Material Exchange Potential. Environmental Science & Technology. 2022. 56 (13), 9773-9783. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c05897

  6. Clark, P. L., Tabory, S., Tong, K., Servadio, J. L., Kappler, K., Xu, K., Lawal, A. S., Wiringa, P., Kne, L., Feiock, R., Marshall, J. D., Russell, A. G., Ramaswami. A.*.  A data framework for assessing social inequality and equity in multi‐sector social, ecological, infrastructural urban systems: Focus on fine‐spatial scales. Journal of Industrial Ecology. 2022. 26 (1), 145-163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jiec.13222

  7. Tong, K., Ramaswami, A.*, Xu, K., Feiock, R., Schmitz, P., Ohlsen M. Measuring social equity in urban energy use and interventions using fine-scale data. PNAS. 2021. 118 (24) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023554118

  8. Ramaswami. A.*, Tong, K., Canadell J., Jackson. R., Stokes, E. Dhakal S., Finch. M., Jittrapirom P., Singh. N., Yamagata Y., Yewdall E., Yona L., Seto, K.. Carbon analytics for net-zero emissions sustainable cities. Nature Sustainability. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-021-00715-5

  9. Tong, K., Nagpure, A., Ramaswami A.*. All urban areas’ energy use data across 640 districts in India for the year 2011. Scientific Data. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00853-7

  10. Tong, K.*, Ramaswami. A., Feiock, R. Environmentally Sustainable Transitions of US District Energy Systems: Perspectives from Infrastructure Operators/Designers through the Co-evolutionary Lens. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020. 268: 121894. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121894

  11. Tong, K.*, Zhao, Z., Feiock, R., Ramaswami, A.. Patterns of Urban Infrastructure Capital Investment in Chinese Cities and Explanation through a Political Market Lens. Journal of Urban Affairs. 2019. 41 (2), 248-263. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07352166.2018.1499417

  12. Tong, K.*, Fang, A., Li, Y., Shi, L., Wang, Y., Wang, S., Ramaswami, A*. The Collective Contribution of Chinese Cities to Territorial and Electricity-related CO2 Emissions. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018. 189: 910-921. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.04.037

  13. Ramaswami. A.*, Jiang, D., Tong, K., Zhao, Z., Impact of the Economic Structure of Cities on Urban Scaling Factors: Implications for Urban Material and Energy Flows in China. Journal of Industrial Ecology. 2018. 22 (2), 392-405. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jiec.12563

  14. Tong, K., Fang, A., Yu, H., Li, Y., Shi, L.*, Wang, S., Ramaswami, A.*. Estimating the Potential for Industrial Waste Heat Reutilization in Urban District Energy Systems: Method Development and Implementation in Two Chinese Provinces. Environmental Research Letters. 2017. 12(12): 125008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa8a17

  15. Ramaswami. A.*, Tong, K., Fang, A., Lal, R., Nagpure, A., Li, Y., Yu, H., Jiang, D., Russell, A., Shi, L., Chertow, M., Wang, Y., Wang, S.. Urban Cross-sector Actions for Carbon Mitigation with Local Health Co-benefits in China. Nature Climate Change. 2017. 7: 736–742. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3373

  16. Tong, K., Fang, A., Boyer, D., Hu, Y., Cui, S., Shi, L., Kalmykova, Y., and Ramaswami, A.*. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Key Infrastructure Sectors in Larger and Smaller Chinese Cities: Method Development and Benchmarking. Carbon Management, 2016, 7(1-2): 27-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17583004.2016.1165354 

Book Chapters

  1. Tong, K., Ramaswami, A. Chapter 10: Urban Environments and Trans-boundary Linkages: in Poulter, B., Canadell, P., Hayes, D., Thompson, R. (Ed). Balancing Regional Greenhouse Gas Budgets. Elsevier. 2022. P337-374 


  1. World Economic Forum In collaboration with Connected Places Catapult and The Business of Cities. 2023. Data for the City of Tomorrow: Developing the Capabilities and Capacity to Guide Better Urban Futures (Insight Report). https://www.weforum.org/reports/data-for-the-city-of-tomorrow-developing-the-capabilities-and-capacity-to-guide-better-urban-futures 

  2. World Economic Forum. 2022. Delivering Climate Resilient Cities Using a Systems Approach (Insight Report).https://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_C4IR_GFC_on_Cities_Climate_Resilience_2022.pdf


Fall 2022. Instructor. ENVR8165: Infrastructure for net-zero carbon cities (Graduate-level). Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Fall 2020. Assistant in Instruction. Sustainable Cities in the US and India: Technology & Policy Pathways (Undergraduate-level). Princeton University

Fall 2016. Instructor. Material and Energy Flows for a Sustainable Society (Graduate-level). University of Minnesota-Twin Cities

Other Professional Activities

Fellow in World Economic Forum Global Future Council-Cities of Tomorrow                                        2020-2022

Board Member in International Society for Industrial Ecology's Sustainable Urban Systems Section    2021-

Young Editorial Board MemberCarbon Neutrality. 2022-2024

Guest Editor. Carbon Neutrality. Special Issue 2022 Asia-Pacific Forum on Green and Low-Carbon Development.

Guest Editor. Resources, Conservation & Recycling. Special Issue "Reshaping urban infrastructure for a carbon-neutral and sustainable future"

Outreach EditorJournal of Industrial Ecology

Referees of Academic Journals: Nature Cities; Nature Energy; Nature Communications; Applied Energy; Environmental Science & Technology; Carbon Balance and Management; Journal of Cleaner Production; Ecological Economics; Journal of Industrial Ecology; Resources, Conservation & Recycling; Science of the Total Environment; etc.

Honors and Awards

Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship, University of Minnesota    2017.09-2018.05